Author: Hiroshi Yasui
Title: The Fusion of Nationalism With Facism and Communism: An Analysis of the Romanian National Movement with Two Ideologies
This paper examines fascism and communism as forms of nationalism which came to power in eastern Europe. It looks especially at the case of Romania, a country that has historically experienced both these phenomena in the twentieth century. Despite fascism and communism being defined as opposing ideologies,both built secure bases of support by fusing with Romanian nationalism. This is confirmed by fascism between the two World Wars and communism after 1945. However nationalism in each case was different in substance and could be distinguished as follows: fascist nationalism was based on peasantism, Orthodoxism and rurality; and communist nationalism was based on industrialisation, nationalisation and urbanity. In spite of these differences, both take root in the underdevelopment of the country as well as hostility towards modernisation and Western Europe. Hence, in countries such as Romania, fascism and communism took the forms of nationalism.